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CCZO -- Soil Geochemistry -- Soil organic matter transformations -- Calhoun CZO -- (2015-2015)


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Abstract

Deep within soil profiles, organic matter (OM) inputs are derived from root growth and root exudates of deeply-rooted species, and organic compounds percolating through the profile from more shallow horizons. Severe disturbance “orphans” these deep roots, which eventually decay in place. When annual crops replace long-lived, deeply rooted vegetation, sustained organic inputs into deep soil volumes are limited to those that percolate down from the overlying horizons. Multiple studies suggest that even after forests are re-planted, it can take more than a century for deep roots to become re-established.

We thus ask if past disturbance and subsequent changes across depth in OM inputs (both content and form) have a contemporary influence on transformations and fate of deep, ancient soil OM and associated biogeochemical fluxes and microbial communities. If so, this phenomenon would suggest a far-reaching nature of the biogeochemical legacies of past disturbance, both in vertical space (down deep) and time (~60 y after forest re-establishment at the Calhoun experimental forest). Discerning and quantifying any such effect would add an additional dimension to existing disturbance-related literature, and helps address some of the questions raised in the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory proposal.

Our objective was to quantify the influence of past land use history and current land cover on deep soil biogeochemical processes linked to OM transformations. For this, we collected soil samples from the Calhoun CZO, from three replicate sites of old-grown hardwood forests, from three replicate sites of old-field pine forests, and from one current crop field (“dovefield”), from depths of 40-50 cm and 400-500 cm by hand augering.

Once the shipped soil samples arrived at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, we incubated subsamples in mason jars and prepared them for gas sampling. Gas samples from the incubation jars were at time 0 and time 1, and CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations in the sampled gas were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. This allowed us to compute rates of soil microbial CO2, CH4 and N2O production. Determining δ13C of the sampled gases with a 13CO2/12CO2 gas analyzer allowed us to assess the δ13C of the CO2 respired by the soil microbes. At the same sampling points during the soil incubations, we also took aliquots of the samples for flourometric enzyme assays. This aimed at quantifying the activities of the microbial extracellular enzymes β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, and phenol oxidase.

All other soil parameters were analyzed on subsamples of the soils immediately after their arrival at the University of Kansas.
Date Range Comments: irregular collections

Subject Keywords

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Resource Level Coverage

Spatial

Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas, Calhoun CZO
North Latitude
34.6477°
East Longitude
-81.6633°
South Latitude
34.5750°
West Longitude
-81.7789°

Temporal

Start Date:
End Date:

Content

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CCZO -- Soil Geochemistry -- Soil organic matter transformations -- Calhoun CZO -- (2015)


OVERVIEW

Description/Abstract

Deep within soil profiles, organic matter (OM) inputs are derived from root growth and root exudates of deeply-rooted species, and organic compounds percolating through the profile from more shallow horizons. Severe disturbance “orphans” these deep roots, which eventually decay in place. When annual crops replace long-lived, deeply rooted vegetation, sustained organic inputs into deep soil volumes are limited to those that percolate down from the overlying horizons. Multiple studies suggest that even after forests are re-planted, it can take more than a century for deep roots to become re-established.

We thus ask if past disturbance and subsequent changes across depth in OM inputs (both content and form) have a contemporary influence on transformations and fate of deep, ancient soil OM and associated biogeochemical fluxes and microbial communities. If so, this phenomenon would suggest a far-reaching nature of the biogeochemical legacies of past disturbance, both in vertical space (down deep) and time (~60 y after forest re-establishment at the Calhoun experimental forest). Discerning and quantifying any such effect would add an additional dimension to existing disturbance-related literature, and helps address some of the questions raised in the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory proposal.

Our objective was to quantify the influence of past land use history and current land cover on deep soil biogeochemical processes linked to OM transformations. For this, we collected soil samples from the Calhoun CZO, from three replicate sites of old-grown hardwood forests, from three replicate sites of old-field pine forests, and from one current crop field (“dovefield”), from depths of 40-50 cm and 400-500 cm by hand augering.

Once the shipped soil samples arrived at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, we incubated subsamples in mason jars and prepared them for gas sampling. Gas samples from the incubation jars were at time 0 and time 1, and CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations in the sampled gas were analyzed with a gas chromatograph. This allowed us to compute rates of soil microbial CO2, CH4 and N2O production. Determining δ13C of the sampled gases with a 13CO2/12CO2 gas analyzer allowed us to assess the δ13C of the CO2 respired by the soil microbes. At the same sampling points during the soil incubations, we also took aliquots of the samples for flourometric enzyme assays. This aimed at quantifying the activities of the microbial extracellular enzymes β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, and phenol oxidase.

All other soil parameters were analyzed on subsamples of the soils immediately after their arrival at the University of Kansas.

Creator/Author

Min, K.|Flournoy, R.|Heroneme, C.|Barger, K.|Lehmeier, C.A.| Heine, P.|Richter, Daniel deB.|Billings, S.A.

CZOs

Calhoun

Contact

Sharon A. Billings, 2101 Constant Ave., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047, USA.

Subtitle

Sampling depths of 40-50 cm and 400-500 cm




SUBJECTS

Disciplines

Biogeochemistry|Biology / Ecology|Soil Science / Pedology

Topics

Soil Geochemistry

Subtopic

Soil organic matter transformations

Keywords

Soil organic matter|soil microbial activity|extracellular enzymes|heterotrophic respiration|CO2 efflux|land use change|disturbance history|soil depth

Variables

Soil_pH|fresh_ mass_incubated_soil|dry_mass_incubated_soil|extractable_organic_carbon_concentration|extractable_organic_nitrogen_concentration|nitrate_conconcentration|microbial_biomass_concentration|soil_CO2_production_rate|soil_CH4_produtcion_rate|soil_N2O_production_rate|δ13C_soil_respired_CO2|β-glucosidase_activity|β-N-acetyl_glucosaminidase_activity|acid_phosphatase_activity|phenol_oxidase_activity

Variables ODM2

Carbon-13, stable isotope ratio delta|Acid phosphatase|Mass|Carbon, dissolved organic|Nitrogen, dissolved organic|Glucosidase|Microbial Biomass|Extracellular enzyme activity|Nitrogen, nitrate (NO3)|Activity, phenol oxidase|Methane|Carbon dioxide|Nitrous oxide|pH




TEMPORAL

Date Start

2015-06-09

Date End

2015-07-22

Date Range Comments

irregular collections




SPATIAL

Field Areas

Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem Plots and Reference Areas

Location

Calhoun CZO

North latitude

34.64774494

South latitude

34.57495247

West longitude

-81.77893686

East longitude

-81.66329492




REFERENCE

CZO ID

4637



Additional Metadata

Name Value
czos Calhoun
czo_id 4637
keywords Soil organic matter, soil microbial activity, extracellular enzymes, heterotrophic respiration, CO2 efflux, land use change, disturbance history, soil depth
subtitle Sampling depths of 40-50 cm and 400-500 cm
variables Soil_pH, fresh_ mass_incubated_soil, dry_mass_incubated_soil, extractable_organic_carbon_concentration, extractable_organic_nitrogen_concentration, nitrate_conconcentration, microbial_biomass_concentration, soil_CO2_production_rate, soil_CH4_produtcion_rate, soil_N2O_production_rate, δ13C_soil_respired_CO2, β-glucosidase_activity, β-N-acetyl_glucosaminidase_activity, acid_phosphatase_activity, phenol_oxidase_activity
disciplines Biogeochemistry, Biology / Ecology, Soil Science / Pedology
date_range_comments irregular collections

How to Cite

Min, K., R. Flournoy, C. Heroneme, K. Barger, C. Lehmeier, P. Heine, D. d. Richter, S. Billings (2019). CCZO -- Soil Geochemistry -- Soil organic matter transformations -- Calhoun CZO -- (2015-2015), HydroShare, http://www.hydroshare.org/resource/c2f67c84dfe14b6d92cf3455ad767f19

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.

 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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