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Annual Subsurface Drainage Map (Red River of the North Basin; Cho et al., 2019)

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Type: Resource
Storage: The size of this resource is 62.9 MB
Created: Aug 09, 2019 at 11:48 p.m.
Last updated: Sep 10, 2019 at 4:41 a.m.
Citation: See how to cite this resource
Content types: Geographic Raster Content 
Sharing Status: Public
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This resource is a repository of the annual subsurface drainage (so-called "Tile Drainage") maps for the Bois de Sioux Watershed (BdSW), Minnesota and the Red River of the North Basin (RRB), separately. The RRB maps cover a 101,500 km2 area in the United States, which overlies portions of North Dakota, South Daokta, and Minnesota. The maps provide annual subsurface drainage system maps for recent four years, 2009, 2011, 2014, and 2017 (In 2017, the subsurface drainage maps including the Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar as an additional input are also provided). Please see Cho et al. (2019) in Water Resources Research (WRR) for full details.

Map Metadata (Proj=longlat +datum=WGS84)
Raster value key:
0 = NoData, masked by non-agricultural areas (e.g. urban, water, forest, or wetland land) and high gradient cultivated crop areas (slope > 2%) based on the USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and the USGS National Elevation Dataset
1 = Undrained (UD)
2 = Subsurface Drained (SD)

Preferred citation:
Cho, E., Jacobs, J. M., Jia, X., & Kraatz, S. (2019). Identifying Subsurface Drainage using Satellite Big Data and Machine Learning via Google Earth Engine. Water Resources Research, 55.

Corresponding author: Eunsang Cho (

Subject Keywords



Coordinate System/Geographic Projection:
WGS 84 EPSG:4326
Coordinate Units:
Decimal degrees
Place/Area Name:
Red River of the North Basin
North Latitude
East Longitude
South Latitude
West Longitude


Start Date:
End Date:


Data Services

The following web services are available for data contained in this resource. Geospatial Feature and Raster data are made available via Open Geospatial Consortium Web Services. The provided links can be copied and pasted into GIS software to access these data. Multidimensional NetCDF data are made available via a THREDDS Data Server using remote data access protocols such as OPeNDAP. Other data services may be made available in the future to support additional data types.


Funding Agencies

This resource was created using funding from the following sources:
Agency Name Award Title Award Number
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Water Resources Applied Sciences Program NNX15AC47G

How to Cite

Cho, E., J. M. Jacobs, X. Jia, S. Kraatz (2019). Annual Subsurface Drainage Map (Red River of the North Basin; Cho et al., 2019), HydroShare,

This resource is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY.


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